Whereas many cities and countries are formed out of a historically layered architecture, in Korea such โ€œlayerdnessโ€ is very scarce. And whereas in most countries both individual and national identity lean heavily on these built historical reference points, in Korea the uniting force seems to be a constant strive for Progress โ€“ a national project initiated in the mid 20th century rather than the countryยดs 5000 year old history.

Assuming this admittedly speculative hypothesis as our starting point, some basic questions inevitably present themselves. Can progress be a national project? How, by whom, and for whom, is such an agenda designed? How is it endorsed? And ultimately, where does the individual fit in?

In search of answers we turn our attention to the built environment, as we believe that the nature of this national project is best shown within the peculiar aesthetic and unique value structure of Korean housing. Not much investigation is needed to find out that the Korean housing-landscape is controlled by a handful of big corporations โ€“ the same ones that drive the bulk of the countryยดs economy and politics.

Observed from a distant and critical standpoint, the housing-landscape resembles the result of a mass-producing industry more than built homes. Moreover, the buildings, especially the apartment blocks, are produced without intentions of having a lifespan of more than some decades. This constant renewal would fit perfectly in to a slogan of Progress. However, the all too harmonious relationship between industry and an ever-present promotion of progress cannot go unnoticed. The irony of the โ€œbecause youยดre worth itโ€ or โ€œYou are where you liveโ€ marketing of individualism for the purpose of an economical oligopoly stares you straight in the eyes.

In this project we try to map the visual rhetoric used to promote and maintain an intricate structure of this privately run national project. Through documenting, mimicking and rearranging this imagery we hope to shake the foundations of the arguments used in this process. Our approach is at the same time both personal-emotional and critical-analytical. What interests us, ultimately, is how we build our lives within these serially produced promises of individuality.

๋ฐœ์ „

์ด๋ฒˆ ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ "๋ฐœ์ „"์€ ํ˜„๋Œ€ ๋„์‹œ๋ฅผ ๋ฐ”๋ผ๋ณด๋Š” ๋‘ ๊ฐ€์ง€์˜ ์„œ๋กœ ๋ชจ์ˆœ๋˜๋Š” ๊ด€์ ์„ ๋‹ค๋ฃฌ๋‹ค. ํ•˜๋‚˜๋Š” ๋„์‹œ์— ๊ฑฐ์ฃผํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ๊ฐ€๊พธ์–ด๋‚ด๋Š” ๊ณ ํ–ฅ์œผ๋กœ์„œ์˜ ๋„์‹œ์ด๊ณ , ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ํ•˜๋‚˜๋Š” ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์ด๊ณ  ์ƒ์—…์  ์ž์‚ฐ์œผ๋กœ์„œ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋˜๊ณ  ์ฐฉ์ทจ๋˜๋Š” ๋„์‹œ์ด๋‹ค. ์ผ๋ จ์˜ ์ž‘ํ’ˆ๋“ค์„ ํ†ตํ•ด ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๋‘ ๊ฐ€์ง€์˜ ํ˜„์‹ค ์‚ฌ์ด์— ์žˆ๋Š” โ€˜์šฐ๋ฆฌโ€™์˜ ์ž๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์ฐพ์œผ๋ ค ๋…ธ๋ ฅํ•œ๋‹ค.

์ด ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ์˜ ๋ฐฐ๊ฒฝ์ด ๋˜๋Š” ๋„์‹œ๋Š” ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ํ˜„์žฌ ์‚ด๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ์ˆ˜๋„๊ถŒ์ด๋‹ค. ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ๋„์‹œ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ ์บ ํŽ˜์ธ ๋˜๋Š” ํ™๋ณด๋ฌผ์—์„œ ํ”ํžˆ ์“ฐ์ด๋Š” ๋ฐœ์ „/์ง„๋ณด/Progress ๋ผ๋Š” ๋‹จ์–ด์— ์ˆจ๊ฒจ์ง„ ๊ทธ ํž˜์€, ์ด์ œ ๊ฑฐ์˜ ๊ตญ๊ฐ€ ์ด๋…์ด ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋งํ•ด๋„ ๋ฌด๋ฐฉํ•  ๋ฟ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ, ์ˆ˜๋„๊ถŒ๊ณผ ํ˜„์žฌ์˜ ๋Œ€ํ•œ๋ฏผ๊ตญ์„ ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ดํ•ดํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ ์ค‘์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐํ•œ๋‹ค. ํ•œ๊ตญ์ด ์„ ํ˜ธํ•˜๋Š” ์ด๋ฅธ๋ฐ” โ€˜์„ ์ง„๊ตญโ€™๋“ค์˜ ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์„ ์‚ดํŽด๋ณด๋ฉด ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ ์ธ ํ๋ฆ„์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์ฒ ์ €ํžˆ ๋ณด์กด๋œ ๊ฑด์ถ•๋“ค๋กœ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ ธ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด, ํ•œ๊ตญ์˜ ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ๊ฑด์ถ•์—์„œ๋Š” ์ƒ๋Œ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์  ์ธต์„ ์ฐพ์•„๋ณด๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ ๊ตญ๋ฏผ ๊ฐœ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ๊ณผ ๋ฏผ์กฑ ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ์€ ๊ฑด์ถ•๋ฌผ์ด ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ๋Š” ์—ญ์‚ฌ์  ๊ธฐ์ค€์— ๊ทธ ํ† ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๋‘๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด, ํ•œ๊ตญ์„ ์‘์ง‘์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ํž˜์€ ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ์˜ค์ฒœ๋…„์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ์ƒ์ง•ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ”์™€ ์ƒ๊ด€์—†์ด, ์˜ค์ง ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ ํ˜น์€ ๋‹น์žฅ์˜ ์ด์ต์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋Š์ž„์—†๋Š” ๋ถ„ํˆฌ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋ณด์ด๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•œ๋‹ค.

์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ํ•œ๊ตญ์˜ ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ตฌ์กฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ํ˜ธ๊ธฐ์‹ฌ ๋ฐ˜ ์˜๊ตฌ์‹ฌ ๋ฐ˜์œผ๋กœ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„ ์ด๋ฒˆ ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ์˜ ์‹œ์ž‘์€ ๋จผ์ € ์ฃผํƒํ™˜๊ฒฝ ์ •๋น„์‚ฌ์—…์—์„œ ํš์ผ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜๋Š” ์ด์ƒํ•œ ๋ฏธ์ ๊ธฐ์ค€๊ณผ ๋…ํŠนํ•œ ๊ฐ€์น˜๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์ถฐ๋ณด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฑด์„ค๋˜๊ณ  ์ •๋น„๋œ ํ’๊ฒฝ๋“ค์„ ๊ธฐ๋กํ•˜๊ณ , ๊ฑด์„ค์‚ฌ์—… ๋งž์ถฐ๊ฐ€๋Š” ๊ด‘๊ณ ๋งค์ฒด์™€ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ์†Œ๋น„ํ•˜๋Š” ์†Œ์œ„ โ€™๊ณ ๊ธ‰ ์Šคํƒ€์ผโ€™, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋ฐ˜์ง ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ ํ˜น์€ ์†Œ๋น„๋œ ํ›„์— ๋‚จ๊ฒจ์ง€๋Š” ๋ถˆ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ๋“ค์ด ๋ฟœ์–ด๋‚ด๋Š” ๊ณตํ—ˆํ•จ์— ์ดˆ์ ์„ ๋งž์ถ”์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋ฐœ์ „์  ์„ฑ๊ณผ์— ํ•œํŽธ์œผ๋กœ ๋†€๋ผ๋ฉด์„œ ๋™์‹œ์— ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๊ณผ์ •์ด ๋‚ณ์€ ํ˜ผ๋ž€์Šค๋Ÿฌ์›€ ์†์—์„œ, ์ด๋ฒˆ ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ๋Š” ์™ธ๋กญ๊ณ  ์šฐ์šธํ•œ ์•„๋ฆ„๋‹ค์›€์„ ๋‹ด๋Š” ์‹œ๋„๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.

ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ๋ฅผ ์ด๋ฃจ๋Š” ์ผ๋ จ์˜ ์ž‘์—…๋“ค์€ ๋น›, ์‚ฌ์šด๋“œ, ํ…์ŠคํŠธ, ์˜์ƒ, ์‚ฌ์ง„ ๋ฐ ์กฐํ˜•๋ฌผ (์ฐฝ์ž‘๋œ ๊ฒƒ ์™ธ์— ๊ธฐ์„ฑํ’ˆ)๋“ค์ด๊ณ , ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์ž‘ํ’ˆ๋“ค์˜ ์กฐํ•ฉ์€ ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ํฐ ์ฃผ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ‘œํ˜„ํ•˜๋Š” ๋‹ซํ˜€์žˆ๋Š” ๊ณต๊ฐ„ ์•ˆ์˜ ํฐ ์„ค์น˜์ž‘ํ’ˆ์ด ๋œ๋‹ค. ์ž‘ํ’ˆ์— ์“ฐ์ธ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ์†Œ์žฌ๋“ค์€ ์‹ค์ œ์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ก์—์„œ ๋–จ์–ด๋œจ๋ ค ๊ทธ ๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์ข€ ๋” ๊ฐ•์กฐํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ ๊ทธ ๋ชฉ์ ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค.